Russian Academy of Sciences
                                Centre for Egyptological Studies, Moscow (CESRAS)
                                                                                                Russian Institute of Egyptology in Cairo (RIEC)
         A General Practical Introduction efficient use of this site:

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This site is intellectual property of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Egyptological Studies, Moscow R.F. This material may be freely used for non-commercial,
educational, and public services applications. If you use our material, please give a credit  to CESRAS, Moscow, and make a link to You may contact us by
email: and we would be happy to help you in any way we can. Thanks for your visit to this site and please do come again. There will always be something new!
Introduction to efficient use of this educational site:
updated 14.01.2012/erl/CESRAS

Navigation is the most important tool for users, seeking specific information and
At the bottoms of dark blue and gold page headers you will find a selection of
underlined topics. These are links to the topic or directory mentioned. Click on a
link to jump to its topic. There you will find lists of links, pointing to individual
items, or more specialized lists. The system combines both hierarchical and
direct connection models.   

Throughout the site, underlined items in bright, light blue type are links to the
underlined item: ex.
Home Page  (click,  jump, and return here with arrow at upper
left of the home page.)

Throughout the site you will find markers, generally known as "hot-spots".
Clicking on such a marker will call up related information in other texts or areas of
the system such as photos

Return to your principle jump-off link as soon as possible, using the top upper left
return arrow (perhaps several times, if you have a stack of links, something that
you do not want to have).

Clicking on a photo will cause it to appear in full size. Very large photos will have
a small magnifying-glass at the lower right corner to enable you to enlarge still
more. Beside each digitally edited photo you will find a small "thumbnail".
Clicking on this will call up the original unedited photo. You can download any
image for your own non-commercial use. In this case please give us a credit.

Virtually all material, including individual text pages from old books is in .jpg
format. This allows you to download only the pages that you need. In the case of
books, each web page will contain images of two or more original printed pages.
You will often have to scroll down to find the passage you need.

Altering our images with photo-processors is not fair and not allowed. Unaltered
cutouts of our images are allowed, if used for serious non-commercial purposes.
Incorporation in photo-montages is not allowed and will be subject to legal

If you use any of our images for non-commercial publication. Serious books and
journals must naturally be sold, but we do not consider that as being commercial.
It is forbidden by international law to use any of our material in advertising,
political, or religious (other than academic theological publications) contexts.
Violators of these rules will be subject to legal prosecution to the full extent of the

Do not forget to state the object's location and inventory number if possible.
Without this information, an object has little or no scientific value.

Should you have any suggestions, questions, or corrections (such as typos and
broken links), please contact me at We value your feedback.

Edward R. Loring, CESRAS/RIEC
Research Fellow
Network Administrator
Moscow R. F., 11. October, 2011